Focus groups research methodology
Find a good setting, such as a conference room, with good airflow and lighting. Group dynamics often bring out aspects of the topic or reveal information about the subject that may not have been anticipated by the researcher or emerged from individual interviews.
Focus group methodology ppt
However, there are also some fundamental differences between the two, such as the purpose of the encounter, reasons for participating, roles of the people involved and how the interview is conducted and recorded. The paper examines each method in detail, focusing on how they work in practice, when their use is appropriate and what they can offer dentistry. Focus group members must be able to interpret the context for the discussion and, as much as possible, find it logical and comfortable. The use of 'leading' or 'loaded' questions that may unduly influence responses should always be avoided eg, 'So you think dental surgery waiting rooms are frightening? Just as in the dynamics of real life, the participants are able to interact, influence, and be influenced. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant literature, we discuss the merits and potential pitfalls of the technique. However, ethnographic analysis does permit a detailed interpretative account of the everyday social processes of communication, talk and action occurring within the focus group, which can be useful in some instances Krippendorff, Keep the momentum of the conversation going, and 3.
Therefore, in this paper, we seek to describe focus groups as they are used in academic research. Consider the following: Welcome, review of agenda, review of the goal of the meeting, review of ground rules, introductions, questions and answers, and wrap up.
When conducting the actual interview it is prudent for the interviewer to familiarise themselves with the interview schedule, so that the process appears more natural and less rehearsed.
Their use is, therefore, generally only considered where significant 'depth' is required, or where virtually nothing is known about the subject area or a different perspective of a known subject area is required.
A focus group is a group discussion on a particular topic organised for research purposes.
Importance of focus group discussion
The facilitator is central to the discussion not only by managing existing relationships but also by creating a relaxed and comfortable environment for unfamiliar participants. However, the constraints of most consultations are such that any open-ended questioning needs to be brought to a conclusion within a fairly short time. We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. All studies where the technique was merely mentioned in the introduction or conclusion section were eliminated. For example, in a school setting, pupils may behave like pupils, and in clinical settings, participants may be affected by any anxieties that affect them when they attend in a patient role. The interview When designing an interview schedule it is imperative to ask questions that are likely to yield as much information about the study phenomenon as possible and also be able to address the aims and objectives of the research. The discussion must be conducted in a conducive environment. Conducting focus groups: group composition and size The composition of a focus group needs great care to get the best quality of discussion. Characteristics of focus groups The design of focus group research will vary based on the research question being studied. It typically consists of a small number of participants, usually about six to 12, from within a company's target market. It does that very well, in part, because focus groups utilize qualitative data collection methods.
Survey instruments tend to be viewed as scientific, particularly when they produce quantitative dataand so may be overused by those who lack confidence in other market research strategies.
The examples of dental studies that have employed these methods also help to demonstrate the range of research contexts to which interview and focus group research can make a useful contribution.
based on 51 review